Return to site

高棉當代藝術群像

· 东南亚,柬埔寨 Cambodia

文/申雁冰

「昔日的難民,今日的贏家」[1],新加坡《海峽時報》以這樣的標題報導了Svay Sareth獲2016年保成當代藝術獎的消息。對此大好消息,柬埔寨當地媒體《金邊郵報》更願意提及藝術家的真實名字,避免難民身份:「Svay Sareth在新加坡榮獲最高獎項」[2]

Svay Sareth在世界藝術界的身份,也是柬埔寨當代藝術家們普遍面臨的困境,媒體更在乎柬埔寨藝術家的難民經歷,至於藝術家是誰,叫什麼名字,往往並不關注。結束戰亂、回歸和平,柬埔寨在試圖重新回歸正軌、尋找自身在世界舞臺的位置時,卻困難重重,面臨偏見的高牆,藝術只是這種身份轉型時期的一個窗口。在柬埔寨試圖回歸世界時,不得不面對苦難記憶被拿來當做身份標識和賣點的現實,正如大屠殺博物館已成為金邊旅遊熱門景點一樣,用販賣創痛的方式,來維持產業經濟。藝術是整個社會與民族的鏡子,它所面臨的順與逆,也是一個國度所背負的愛與痛。從歷史傷痕中出走,構築記憶以外的新話語和故事,創造屬於自己的新歷史,是柬埔寨當代藝術家們的新使命。

這個章節,我們以專訪及對話的方式,由作者帶出藝術家的群像,藉著藝術家群像窺視當今柬埔寨的意樹生態。

注释:

[1] “Ex-refugee wins big at Prudential Eye Awards” by Deepika Shetty, Strait Times, Singapore, Jan 20 2016

[2] “Svay Sareth wins top prize in Singapore”, Harriet Fitch Little, Phnom Penh Post, Jan 21 2016

Nhek Dim:獨立後的都市

Nhek Dim是柬埔寨現代藝術鼻祖。他成長於柬埔寨民族獨立之際,是二十世紀60年代最重要的藝術家,為其後的柬埔寨現代藝術奠定基礎。Nhek Dim 以繪製卡通和政治諷刺畫為特色,為音樂唱片和書籍繪製封面與插頁。他的作品已成為許多柬埔寨風景名勝的招貼畫,也是高棉民俗畫的始作俑者。他創作的雜誌諷刺畫和流行音樂唱片封面,緊隨20世紀60年代金邊的都市生活和時尚生活方式。

Nhek Dim 1934年出生於波蘿勉省粒村農家,父母是當地富裕農戶,因從小顯示出過人繪畫天賦,父母將他送入金邊的柬埔寨藝術學校,即今天的皇家美術大學學習繪畫。1954年畢業後開始在美國駐金邊大使館工作,1957年在菲律賓居住半年,做繪畫和出版工作,後於1963年移居美國學習動畫電影製作,1967年憑藉卡通畫「聰明的兔子」[1]贏得華特·迪士尼組織的繪畫比賽,同年離開美國回到柬埔寨。Nhek Dim的聲名鵲起源於時任國王諾羅敦·西哈努克的賞識,他邀請Nhem Dim為前任國王西索瓦·莫尼旺的歌曲集創作書籍插畫,Nhem Dim的作品還被當做國粹作為外交活動贈禮,在老撾瑯勃拉邦王宮博物館中,收藏了許多Nhek Dim的作品,均為60年代柬埔寨王室贈送老撾王室的禮物。Nhek Dim本人是小說家和作曲家,他與當時的流行音樂人交往甚密,為其唱片創作封面。Nhek Dim的繪畫極具個人風格,具有濃厚的柬埔寨當地文化特色,他創作的柬埔寨繪畫,描繪吳哥窟、貢步省景色、高棉民間人物。1978年Nhek Dim在紅色高棉統治期間失蹤。

Nhek Dim

section 2-Nhek Dim, 《丰收》1972

Nhek Dim, Luscious sky over a river village, 1973.

Nhek Dim绘制的柬埔寨村庄

Nhek Dim, 《婚礼》

Nhek Dim, Cambodian Tourism posters, c. 1960,

Leang Seckon:沉重的裙擺

Leang Seckon是柬埔寨當代最重要的藝術家之一,與20世紀70年代出生的一批藝術家一起,作為「傷痕藝術」一代。他成長於柬埔寨歷史上最黑暗的內亂時期,經歷了紅色高棉推翻朗諾政權、恐怖統治以及波爾布特大屠殺。他的作品深刻記錄了佛教信仰與極權恐怖。在關照現代發展中所面臨的新課題時,Leang Seckon總是持續將歷史的陰影與集體記憶作為對照,構建了屬於他這一代藝術家的高棉敘事。

1974年Leang Seckon生於波蘿勉省,1992年Leang Seckon首次來到首都金邊學習繪畫,「那時候的我連睡覺的地方都沒有」,Leang Seckon回憶道。 2002年,Leang Seckon從金邊皇家美術大學畢業,他的藝術借助多媒體演繹,除油畫外,還加入了拼貼、錄影等媒介。

迄今為止在Rossi & Rossi畫廊舉辦的兩場個展涵蓋了Leang Seckon的重要作品。2010年的展覽《沉重的裙擺》[1]源於藝術家從母親和同鄉人處聽說的真實經歷,指代了二十世紀70年代身懷六甲的母親穿著的棉布裙,在戰火紛飛的內戰、越南入侵、恐怖統治下,厚重的裙子隱喻了生命的掙紮與生存。裙擺上是一個又一個的破洞,洞中的織物化作紛飛的戰火、驚恐的臉、爆炸的彈頭、飛機殘骸等,這件破碎的裙子是創傷記憶的視覺載體。

2014年新展《人間地獄》(Hell on Earth)是Leang Seckon的自傳式創作,源自藝術家對社會的個人觀察與感受,包括戰爭、政治意識形態以及環境變化。 油畫《月亮陽傘》[2]乍看是印象派風格的浪漫故事,20世紀50-70年代紅極一時的被譽為「高棉音樂之王」的歌星Sin Sisamouth與舞女相伴表演,一派歌舞昇平,背後是巨大的藍色夜空,佈滿星辰,仿佛梵古的《星空》。然而星星的背後,隱約可見戰鬥機的陰影,空襲與爆炸即將毀滅一切,舞臺的歌聲仿佛靡靡之音。畫面上的湄公河正是70年代初作為共產黨佔領區和美國佔領下的自由區分割線。浪漫優美的畫作卻隱喻著即將到來的駭人恐怖。拼貼畫《我的一生》[3]是一組更現實主義的個人敘事,觀看畫作仿佛在翻閱藝術家的私人日記本,泰國航空的logo、蘇聯郵票、美國招貼畫、吳哥旅遊明信片以及人民幣,講述著冷戰格局、地緣政治、意識形態對抗和歷史恩怨下的柬埔寨,一個普通人的命運沉浮。另一方面,作為傳統佛國人的Leang Seckon,將焦點回歸到核心,即人的信仰中,去對應苦難的出口,他創作了許多以小乘佛教教義和古典史詩為主題的畫作,包括《大象與血池》[4]、《天堂保佑》[5]

Leang Seckon的畫作大量以紅色高棉為背景,但這種創作主題對今天來說絕不過時,「藝術所探討的所有主題,都是人類的根本命題」[6],Leang Seckon解釋說無論是佛教還是紅色高棉,這些屬於歷史的象徵元素,對今日仍有重大意義。「戰爭的倖存者如今被扔到了快速發展的社會巨流中,速度快到他們跟不上,以至於人們已沒有時間思考,自己過去與當下的生活和社會存在怎樣的關聯。因此,一切看起來都那般模糊、困惑、失效。重新思考這些歷史的象徵與符號,才能澄清事件,看清楚。」[7]

注释:

[1] Heavy Skirt

[2] parasol of the moon

[3] My life

[4] The elephant and the Pond of Blood

[5] Bang Skol (Blessing to Heaven)

[6] 原文:“I believe the message relates to contemporary society in general, All universally relatable themes”, in “Interview with Cambodian Artist Leang Seckon”, theculturetrip.com

[7] 原文:”People that survived the war have been thrown into this rapidly developing society, which has made them move forward too quickly. They have not had the time to reflect on contemporary life and society in relation to their past. As a result, everything seems unclear, confused and of low quality. Thinking about these traditional motifs and symbols can help clarify things.”, in “Interview with Cambodian Artist Leang Seckon”, theculturetrip.com

Leang Seckon, ‘Parasol of the Moon’, 2012, mixed media on canvas, 200 x 150 cm (79 x 59 in). Courtesy the artist and Rossi and Rossi Gallery.

Leang Seckon, ‘The Elephant and the Pond of Blood’, 2013, mixed media and collage on canvas, 200 x 150 cm (79 x 59 in). Courtesy the artist and Rossi and Rossi Gallery.

Leang Seckon, ‘Bang Skol (Blessing to Heaven)’, 2013, mixed media and collage on canvas, 200 x 200 cm (79 x 79 in). Image courtesy of the artist and Rossi and Rossi Gallery.

Leang Seckon, ‘My Life’, 2013, mixed media on canvas, 40 x 50 cm (15 3⁄4 x 19 3⁄4 in). Courtesy the artist and Rossi and Rossi Gallery.

Sopheap Pich:遊離者困局

作為海外最受關注的柬埔寨藝術家,Sopheap Pich用柬埔寨的蔓藤、竹子等傳統材料所製作的大型雕塑,是高棉藝術在海外的一個抽象縮影。高大的裝置容量巨大,形象卻抽象空靈,看起來輕盈而不沉重。古老的竹藤是熱帶地區人們生活的必備,佔據家庭手工、建築與農業的方方面面,這種溫和的材料,成就了Sopheap呼喚禪意、哲學宗教、信仰、鄉愁與生命課題的藝術表達。

相比同輩藝術家,Sopheal Pich是幸運的,「我很幸運,70年代紅色高棉時期,我們一家沒有受到什麼影響。」[1]與很多同輩藝術家一樣,Sopheal Pich 1971年出生於西北部馬德望省,家人世代務農。1979年越南軍隊入侵柬埔寨時,全家避難到泰柬邊境難民營,並於偶然的機會於1984年遠渡美國和入籍,成為紅色高棉政權以來的海外柬埔寨難民。Sopheap Pich雖生於柬埔寨,早年卻一直游離於祖國之外,他在泰國和菲律賓接受教育,學習高棉語和英文,13歲時Pich開始在美國馬薩諸塞州接受中學教育,1994年在巴黎居住一年,1995年從馬薩諸塞州大學畢業後,又在邁阿密和波士頓呆過兩年,然後去芝加哥藝術學校攻讀碩士。Pich擁有豐富的遊歷經驗,在多地生活過,也幸運的躲過發生在母國的劫難,在美國接受高等教育,並獲得國籍,然而這些相比同齡人更幸運的經歷,卻無法讓他獲得心靈安寧。

「畢業後到返回柬埔寨前的那些年,我試圖尋找一份正式工作,做藝術,但那是我人生的低谷」,Pich回憶道:「我們在美國的身份是難民,為留在這裏,父母皆在工廠做苦工,背負沉重的心理壓力,我就在想,我做這些事情究竟有什麼意義?」[2]那時起,關於故土的記憶不斷湧現,不知不覺,柬埔寨的一切成為他藝術創作的一切源頭。「我畫了許多風景畫,令我驚訝的是,我居然畫的都是柬埔寨的景觀,我開始如饑似渴地找尋一切跟柬埔寨有關的圖像。」故土的遙遠記憶召喚著這位海外高棉人,作為離散海外的漂泊者,故土成為Pich的精神慰藉,縱使已在海外多年,依舊背負著身份的格格不入與疏離感,在異國他鄉,用母國的圖像創作以獲得對自我身份認同。Sopheap Pich的創作,為柬埔寨「傷痕藝術」拓展了涵義,傷痕不僅僅是本土極權暴力的傷害,也是為躲避極權被迫逃難散居異鄉者的精神困境,如果前者是可視的殘忍,比如Leang Seckon的繪畫,那麼Sopheap Pich所代表的後者,則是隱形的精神磨難。

就是這種隱形的、無法被看見和理解的困局,成就了Sopheap Pich詩意而抽象的竹藤雕塑作品。他的雕塑龐大而複雜,卻並無強烈的存在感,而是溫和的象徵主義,無法一眼看得出直觀意義,但它龐大的存在卻又令人無法忽視。每一幀裝置,都是藝術家精神的出口。《安靜》(Silence)、《循環》(Cycle)、《佛祖》(Buddha)、《晨光》(Morning Glory)都用竹藤編制了一個又一個密密麻麻的裝置,被竹藤團團簇擁和圍欄住,就像柬埔寨的竹藤編手工藝品一般,結實、嚴密,看似許多空隙,卻牢固不破,乍一看是通透的,實則森森重圍,將藝術家的精神緊緊地包裹。作為一個沒有切身經歷過故土苦難的遊子,Sopheap Pich用故土的本土材料構建著他對苦難的詮釋,以既疏遠又緊密的方式,傾述困局。

注释:

[1] Presentation by Sopheap Pich, Asian Art Archive in America, New York, October 30 2011, Transcribed by Xiaofei Mo

[2] Presentation by Sopheap Pich, Asian Art Archive in America, New York, October 30 2011, Transcribed by Xiaofei Mo

Sopheap Pich profile

sopheap pich, ‘seated buddha’ by sopheap pich, rattan, bamboo, wire, plywood256 × 220 × 110 cm. image courtesy tyler rollins fine art

Sopeahp Pich,fields of ratanakiri no. 2’, 2012image courtesy tyler rollins fine art

Sopheap Pich,gen-Sopheap-Pich-A-Room-installation-view-Indianapolis-Museum-of-Art-ubs

Sopheap Pich, Morning Glory, 2011, photo credit to guggenheim museum

◎ Svay Sareth 先行者

在新加坡贏得2016年保成藝術獎的Svay Sareth在新加坡引發媒體關注,榮獲了新晉藝術家和新晉雕塑家兩大獎項的Svay Sareth不僅獲得5萬美元獎金,也獲得了在英國薩奇畫廊展出作品的機會。

對新加坡媒體和世界藝術界還尚屬「新晉」的Svay Sareth,其實在柬埔寨本土早已成名,並被譽為柬埔寨藝術先行者。他生於馬德望,在泰柬邊界的難民營度過了13年,在難民營師從法國藝術家與藝術教育者Veronique de Crop。Svay Sareth也是柬埔寨藝術教育的先行者,他與老師Veronique de Crop一起於1994年在馬德望創辦了Phare Ponleu Selpak藝術學校,希望藝術可以改變更多像他一樣的人的命運,此後,Svay又前往法國學習,獲得學士和碩士學位。

「他的作品有趣、詩意而自信」,保成藝術獎總監Niru Ratnam評論說。Svay最引發關注的作品,是名為《樁子》的裝置,包括木棍和掛在上面的17雙橡膠拖鞋。橡膠拖鞋指代了柬埔寨當地人普遍穿著的服飾,象徵無數在極權中慘死和失蹤的無名者,《廢墟》則使用迷彩服布料製作布藝玩具,仿真人體的斷臂殘肢和小乘佛教的鬼神頭像。Svay以多媒體方式展現他對藝術的理解,不限於雕塑、裝置和錄影,每部作品都帶有強烈的象徵意義。他在當下與歷史間不斷穿行,既有求取生存的艱難感,又兼具敢於探險的冒險精神,兼具權力性與無力感。看Svay的作品總有一種緊張感,作品中滲透著創作者對現實的高度警惕,即使是當下,亦是危險的。

Artist Svay Sareth and his work

Svay Sareth, The Vessantara Jataka, 2015, Cotton kapok embroidery iron, 240-x-400 cm diameter, Image courtesy: artist and SA-SA-BASSAC

Svay Sareth, Stake or Skewer, 2015, picture from prudential eye awards

Svay Sareth, Ruins, 2014, Installation 1

◎ Anida Yoeu Ali: 一隻佛國的蟲

一隻橘黃色的長尾巴異物在佛國的土地上到處流竄,製造惶恐不安,同時又引發搞笑荒誕效果。作一隻怪異的巨型蟲,就是Anida Yoeu Ali對自己作為占族穆斯林在柬埔寨這個佛教國家生活的感受。她毫不掩飾,直白地交代說:「我無法與佛教和解」。Anida為柬埔寨藝術界帶來一股與眾不同的清風,她幾乎與所有主要高棉藝術家劃清界限,沒有柬埔寨當代藝術一向強調的「傷痕」、「歷史」、「紅色高棉」、「記憶」等主題,她幾乎完全脫離了所有高棉的主體敘事,自成一家,在她身上,甚至看不到絲毫高棉藝術的影子,如果除去馬德望這個出生地,Anida甚至很難被歸類為柬埔寨藝術家,她似乎更接近於一個國際藝術家的風格,少數民族、女性、前衛、激進,她是藝術家,更是政治訴求者和社會活動家。Anida的藝術,幫助我們跳出對高棉藝術的既定思維,讓觀者看到柬埔寨社會的複雜性,它絕不僅僅是一個戰亂後恢復元氣的療愈式社會,而是與世界上任何民族國家一樣,面臨民族矛盾和多元衝突。

 

Anida 1974年生於馬德望,成長於美國芝加哥,是美國的第一代高棉穆斯林女性。作為海外離散者的Anida,與Sopheap Pich對母國的追思悲憫完全不同,Anida更願意將母國的缺陷以批判而尖銳的方式向世界表達,同時將這種小民族的困局與全球性的不公不平聯繫在一起,表達世界性憤怒。雖然是海外柬埔寨人,但Anida更願意認同自己是穆斯林少數和女性。《1700%項目》中她拍攝了美國穆斯林和其他少數族裔,包括《蔑視是這樣的》[1]、《被錯怪的穆斯林》[2]、《他者》[3]等具有挑釁性的政治抗議作品。另一方面,Anida的腳步不限於美國和柬埔寨,由於關注全球女權課題,她踏上日本領土,在這個典型的兩性不平等的發達國家展開了她對女權的訴求,表演藝術《白色母親》和《16分鐘》完全取材於日本社會現實,批判了女性作為家庭主婦和家庭中唯一的育兒者的社會不公。

 

《佛祖的飛蟲》[4]模擬了穆斯林女性頎長的罩袍,製作成巨長的桶狀,四處纏繞搖擺,以自嘲的方式反諷柬埔寨社會對穆斯林信仰的極低包容度。選擇將罩袍染成小乘佛教的橘紅色而非黑色,象徵著中南半島上占族的特殊身份。《佛祖的飛蟲》不僅諷刺了宗教和民族矛盾,也探討了柬埔寨的城鄉差距。但這場表演的涵義不止如此,它在海外引起的反響頗值得玩味。2015年,《佛祖的飛蟲》曾在新加坡馬來人聚居區甘榜格南的馬來文化館外表演,旁邊就是蘇丹清真寺,禮拜結束後的穆斯林駐足觀看,身穿紗籠頭戴宋穀帽的馬來穆斯林先生看到這只模擬穆斯林女性著裝的怪物時,感到受了冒犯,認為這是對穆斯林的侮辱,憤懣地表達道:「這不是穆斯林!」[5]他的話並非絕無道理,因為蟲子的罩袍是小乘佛教袈裟的橘紅色,它更似一種只屬於柬埔寨的獨特混合體,由伊斯蘭教與佛教混合而成的複雜構成。當Anida試圖表達她在母國與主流佛教無法共處的悲憤時,她已經下意識地將這個她並不認同的國度,融合於自我身份中。

 

 

[1] This is Defiance

[2] mistaken for Muslin

[3] Otherance

[4] Buddhism Bug

[5] 參考了”Anida Yoeu Ali: Artist Provocateur”, by Annie Jael Kwan, Art Asia Pacific Issue 95

Anida Yoeu Ali,White Mother, Video still, Fukuoka Triennale 5, 2014

Anida Yoen Ali, Oxcart Grazing, The Buddhist Bug Series, Digital C print, 2014

Anida Yoen Ali, Morning Prayers, The Buddhist Bug Series, Digital C print, 2014

Anida Yeon Ali,16 Minutes, Live Performance, Fukuoka Triennale 5, 2014

Anida Yeon Ali, Around Town, The Buddhist Bug Series, Digital C print, 2012

Anida Yeon Ali,16 Minutes, Performance, Fukuoka Triennale 5, 2014

Anida Yoeu Ali, Offerings, The Buddhist Bug Series, Digital C print, 2014

Anida Yoeu Ali, The Buddhist Bug Project, Anida Yoeu Ali, photo from JavaArts 2

Anida Yoeu Ali,This is Defiance, Digital capture, 2010

Anida Yoeu Ali, White Mother, Live Performance, Fukuoka Triennale 5, 2014

Anida Yoeu Ali, This is Defiance, Digital capture, 2010

Conversations with Young Artists

與新生代藝術家的對話

采访:申雁冰

Kim Hak

Destroying heritage is like killing old people

Conversation: Laura Shen×Kim Hak

I was genuinely moved by Kim Hak’s answers to me. Besides an artist, he is also a conscientious, passionate Khmer intellectual deeply cares and loves his country and nation. He believes that art is significant to history and humanity. His frank sharing of his personal family migration history has subtly revealed the urbanization and internal geographical relation within the country, the re-call of the interaction with overseas Khmer is accompanied by deep national recognition and humanitarian empathy. This knowledgeable, susceptible artist has demonstrated me the responsibility of a Khmer intellectual.

對柬埔寨攝影師Kim Hak的訪問讓我數次動容,他是一位極富良知與情感的藝術家,他飽含深情的鏡頭記錄著他對柬埔寨的深愛,對歷史與記憶的使命感。他相信藝術對柬埔寨歷史和整個人類的巨大意義,他向我坦白了自身家族遷徙與柬埔寨城市化和地區發展的微妙聯繫,也分享了與海外柬埔寨人的互動,表達深深的民族認同與人性關懷。身為藝術家的他,也是一位博學而敏感的社會觀察者,不僅對本國歷史底蘊深厚,也讓我看到高棉知識分子的社會責任感。

柬埔寨摄影师Kim Hak | 图片来源:Kim Hak提供

Laura Shen(LS): Please share with us the works which you think can best represent your art, your main style and what makes your art special.

申雁冰:請與我們分享你的代表作、作品風格和藝術的獨特之處。

Kim Hak (KH): I would pick up my on-going project of my series “Alive” to represent my art. “ALIVE” is my personal concept to reveal the intimate memory of old photos and usual objects entrusted to me by local Cambodian families, forty years after the Khmer Rouge regime.

All these photographs and objects are deeply significant. They are evidence of the past time in history. War can kill victims, but it cannot kill memory of the survivors. The memory should be alive, known and shared for the current research of human beings, and the preservation of heritage for the next generations.

So far, I love documentary, but my works mostly are not straight documentary. Most of them are fusion of art, concepts and documentary. I also love archaeology and history, and they affect on my artworks. Most of my works got historical layers, each work comes out with research. I love shooting with existing light of any environment. In my work “Alive”, it looks like photos shot in studio, but all photos are shot with natural light.

Kim Hak:代表作方面,我推薦目前正在創作的系列作品《活著》。在紅色高棉結束40年後,一些本地柬埔寨家庭委託給我一些老照片和日常物品,「活著」是我個人對這些私人記憶的一種概念。這些照片和物品彌足珍貴,它們是歷史的證據。戰爭殺害了受害者,卻抹不去倖存者的記憶。這些記憶應該存活下來,與今天的人類分享,並留給下一代。

我喜歡紀錄片,但我的多數作品並非簡單的記錄,而是藝術、概念與紀錄的綜合體,考古學和歷史也對我的創作有影響,我的大部分作品富有歷史層次感,每部作品都經過研究才創作出來。我青睞使用自然光,無論現場環境如何,就像《活著》這部作品,乍一看以為是攝影棚造出的,其實都是在自然光下拍攝。

Kim Hak, 《活着》Alive, Battambang 2014 - Logan 2015, photo credit to artist

LS: You shot a series of photos recording the situation after King Father Norodom Sihanouk’s death in Unity. Could you share with us your initial desire of working on this topic, how does Sihanouk’s death relate to the theme “Unity”? What have you observed from ordinary citizens in this funeral and what do you want to convey through this photography, is it a reflection on politics and history?

申雁冰:作品《團結》是一組關於太皇西哈努克葬禮現場的紀實攝影。可以告訴我們你創作這個主題的初衷嗎?西哈努克去世與「團結」有什麼樣的聯繫?你從參加葬禮的普通百姓身上看到了什麼,想通過這次攝影表達什麼?這是否涉及對政治和歷史的反思?

KH: “Unity” is, first of all, the coming together of people of the whole country, Cambodia, united by deep sorrow. It is the sorrow of people suddenly dressed in white because King Father Norodom Sihanouk is gone in October 2012. His death has ended a key period in the complex, painful but also joyful history of a land that has experienced independence and then war and horror, the end of nightmare, and reconstruction. Norodom Sihanouk always keeps as the father figure of a politically astute leader, filmmaker, writer, singer, skillful negotiator, and is close to this country he loved.

Of this unity, I am part of this intertwining people. I am not, during this time of grief, ever an outsider: The mourning is my mourning. I am only one among the millions who gathered in front of Royal Palace or at the site of cremation ceremony. My photographs are akin to others’ offerings, while my action is both similar to and different from theirs. Through my photographs, I want to show the reflection of ordinary people after King Father passed away. At the same time, it shows that people love the King Father in general.

Being human, no body is perfect. The King Father has got a lot of great achievements, but had also made some heavy mistakes in modern history by allowing Vietnamese to build military camp in Cambodia’s land to fight against US during Vietnam War. Then, US had dropped a lot of bombs on our country. It was the cause that lead to Khmer Rouge regime as well. He was ousted from power in 1970, he took refuge in Beijing, and allying himself with the Khmer Rouge he had previously fought in order to oppose the newly created republican government in Phnom Penh. Once the Khmer Rouge had seized power, he spent most of their regime (1975-1979) under house arrest in the Royal Palace in Phnom Penh. At the end, people want to show their last respect when he was gone. I believe that people would cry for someone they love, not because of someone they hate.

KH:「團結」指的是,柬埔寨全國民眾因極度悲傷而聚合在一起。2012年10月,太皇西哈努克辭世,人們被突如其來的噩耗推入巨大的悲痛中,他們穿上白色喪服為太皇送葬。他的離世表明,這個國度複雜、悲痛但又愉悅的歷史長河中極為重要的一段,已畫上句號。他伴隨這個國家走過了民族獨立、戰爭與恐怖、噩夢終結,以及重建。諾羅敦·西哈努克始終是柬埔寨國父,他是機敏的政治領導人、電影人、作家、歌手、談判家,緊緊保護著這片他深愛的熱土。

在這次人民的「團結」中,我本人也是其中的一份子。在這片悲傷的海洋中,我並不是局外人,我與大家一起哀悼,是大王宮外或火化儀式中數以百萬的民眾中的一個。是民眾們的舉動催生了我的作品,但身為攝影師的我,既與他們有共同之處,又不盡相同。我想通過攝影來展現普通人的真實一面,同時表現民眾對這位已故太皇的深愛。

任何人都不可能完美,即使太皇西哈努克可不例外,他取得了很多偉大成就,但也犯過重大錯誤,例如在越戰期間,他准許越南在柬埔寨境內駐紮軍營以反擊美軍,隨之,美軍在柬埔寨投擲大量炸彈,這為紅色高棉的崛起提供了土壤。1970年朗諾發動政變,西哈努克被驅逐,到北京避難,為了對抗在金邊新成立的共和國政府,他不惜與曾視之為敵的紅色高棉合作,紅色高棉掌權的1975-1979年,他一度在金邊的大皇宮過著軟禁生活。但最終,當西哈努克離世時,人民向他表達了最後的致敬,我相信,人們是為了那個他們愛戴的人而哭泣,而不是為了他們痛恨的人。

Kim Hak, Unity,2012-2013, credit to artist

LS: Besides your art works, your personal experience is also interesting. You went to Brisbane, Australia in 2015 to engage with the Australian-Cambodians in Jorng Jam (To Remember) project. I am very curious about your experience during this trip, what was your feeling when you met your compatriots overseas and talk with them about your motherland marked by Khmer Rouge as a common memory? Can you shortly introduce us the situation of Australian-Cambodian diaspora, what art works have you created during the art residency there, and your views on how Khmer Rouge has brought Cambodian diaspora together into the same context of “Remembering” through the media of art?

申雁冰:我覺得不僅僅是你的作品有意思,你的個人經歷也很有趣。2015年在項目《為了記住》的活動中,你曾前往澳大利亞布裏斯班與當地的澳籍高棉裔同胞交流。我很好奇你在那次經歷中的感受,當你在海外遇到同胞時,你們對故鄉的共同記憶是紅色高棉,這成為你們的共同話題。可以向我們介紹一下澳籍高棉人的情況嗎?在那次駐地藝術項目中,你創作了哪些作品,你認為在「為了記住」這樣的語境下,紅色高棉的話題是如何將海外柬埔寨人團聚起來的,藝術發揮了什麼樣的作用?

KH: Jorng Jam firstly started in Cambodia by end 2013. We met up with Pip Kelly who is Australian producer of the project. We worked together with four artists including myself, Neak Sophal (photographer), Kong Vollak (multi-art forms) and Neang Kavich (filmmaker). In Cambodia, we have done artworks, which related to memory of our families who they are survivors of Khmer Rouge living inside the country. Our artworks exhibited firstly at Bophana Center in Phnom Penh in 2014. Pip has tried to get grand funding from Arts Queensland. It has allowed us to come to Logan-Australia to continue our project with Australian-Cambodian. We stayed there for 6 weeks.

On the day, upon our arrival, we attended gala dinner with Cambodian concert, which all Khmer gathered. It was the first introduction for us. Next days, we visited Cambodian pagodas in Logan. It was really a surprise for us. One pagoda we visited, it looks exactly like in Cambodia even the trees and flowers. For the first four weeks, it was the researching process. We met up a lot potential people to work with at their homes. All people we met, they still speak fluent Khmer. I have noticed that for most of houses owned by Australian-Cambodians, they have planted the same trees like they are in Cambodia. Frankly, we could guess by seeing those trees in front of their homes.

We had spent a lot of time to listen to their individual stories, lives before Khmer Rouge, during the regime, a lot of horrible stories at the border camps in Thailand and their first arrival in Australia. They really opened their stories to us as they considered that what we have been doing is very important for history and research of humanity. Some stories that we don’t really hear in Cambodia are about experiences at the border camps. It was very hard for us. Some stories, they had hid inside themselves without sharing with children as well. After speaking out, some of them cried, but after that they felt released. I continued my project “Alive” because I want to complete time line of history.

KH: 「為了記住」項目2013年底在柬埔寨發起,我與澳大利亞的項目製作人Pip Kelly見面,並和包括攝影師Neak Sophal、多媒體藝術家Kong Vollak以及電影人Neang Kavich在內的其他三位藝術家一起合作。我們自己的國內親人很多是紅色高棉的倖存者,我們就此在柬埔寨製作了一些關於家庭記憶的藝術作品,並在2014年於金邊的Bophana中心首次展覽。Pip從昆士蘭藝術組織處獲得資金,在其贊助下,我們一行人來到澳大利亞洛根,與當地的高棉裔人繼續完成項目,我們在那呆了6周。

我們到達的那天晚上參加了一場歡迎晚宴,並伴有一場柬埔寨音樂會,所有當地的高棉人都來參加了,那場活動上,我們第一次被介紹給當地。接下來幾天我們參觀了洛根當地的柬埔寨寶塔,我們當時確實吃了一驚,有個寶塔跟柬埔寨的寶塔一模一樣,連樹木和花朵都一樣。項目的前四周主要是做研究考察的,我們登門拜訪了許多可能與我們合作的人,而且所有人仍然可以講流利的高棉語。我還注意到,大多數澳洲的高棉人,都在房前種植了和他們在柬埔寨一模一樣的樹木,老實說,只要看看門口種的樹,我們就猜得到這房子是不是住著柬埔寨人。

我們花了很長時間聆聽他們的故事,他們在紅色高棉以前和期間的個人遭遇,許多在泰柬邊境難民營聳人聽聞的恐怖故事,還有他們初來澳洲時的一些際遇。他們對我們敞開心扉、坦誠佈公,因為他們相信,我們所做的一切,對歷史、對人類都有重大意義。有些故事,我們在柬埔寨國內是聽不到的,比如那些邊境難民營的經歷,對我們這些聽者來說,是很難的一件事。還有一些故事,他們深深地埋藏在心底,不願意拿出來讓孩子們聽到。傾述過後,他們有些人會哭,但說出來就釋放了很多。我現在在做的系列作品《活著》就是希望把這些歷史的時間線表達完整。

Kim Hak, ON, Phnom Penh 2010, photo credit to artist

LS: As an artist born in Battambang city, you are among the large amount of domestic migrants moving to Phnom Penh for career and life. When did you first come to this city, and how do you feel its difference with your hometown? Perhaps as a newcomer and a new Phnom Penh people, you have got your particular perspective and observations on this city. You have once talked to French media in 2012 about the urban trends in Phnom Penh, what urban trends have you mentioned in that interview? Is there any new trend ongoing right now? As for a city that was to a large extent built by the French, how did you accommodate your discourse of interview to the French audience?

申雁冰:你出生在馬德望,像許許多多國內移居者一樣,你移居金邊發展事業和生活。你是什麼時候第一次來到金邊,是否發現這座城市與你的家鄉有不一樣?或許作為「新金邊人」的你,對這座城市能有一些獨到的觀察與見解。2012年你曾對法國媒體講述金邊的城市化潮流,在那次採訪中你都提到了哪些潮流?5年後的今天又有了哪些新趨勢?很大程度上金邊是由法國人構築而成的,面對法國觀眾,你在採訪中是如何設計自己的話語的?

KH: Yes, I was born in Battambang city. Let’s me go back to family’s journey a bit. From generation to generation, my family has always been moving around in three places: Siem Reap, Battambang and Phnom Penh. Originally, my ancestors were in Siem Reap Angkor, parts of the family are still there till now. Maybe because of the fall of Angkor, then families moved slowly to Battambang. If I travel with my parents from Battambang to Siem Reap, we can visit relatives in each village along the way to get to Angkor. My father’s side always come to Phnnom Penh for studying or better education. Even my dad, he came to study in Phnom Penh before arrival of Khmer Rouge. After that he returned back to work in Battambang.

In the early 80s, because of my father’s work, he had brought family to live in Phnom Penh since I was a kid. My brothers and sisters had already studied at schools. Then, in about 1990, he moved back to work in Battambang before heading to Siem Reap till he retired in 2008. As it was difficult of change all the schools and move us back to Battambang, so my parents decided to let us live in capital. My parents are always rice farmers and working in plantation in Battambang till now. Since I was a kid, I have always moved around, come and go between Phnom Penh – Battambang and Siem Reap to visit my parents. We have homes in Phnom Penh, Battambang city and in countryside of Battambang. My parents can’t live long in city as they get used to countryside. My life is between countryside and city. Even I live in the city, I quite often come home to visit parents and family in countryside (to be in nature).

I have grown up in the capital to see the changing of the city. Long before it became a city, Phnom Penh was just clusters of small houses along Tonle Sap River. When it was modernized by the French colonial administration in the late 1800s, the Post Office area was the first Western-style buildings to be erected in Phnom Penh including Post Office, Indochina Bank, hotel, police station and so on. The capital city Phnom Penh had experienced as horizontal city till first arrival of skyscraper buildings in 2006. Then, there were a lot of constructions of skyscraper in between 2006 – 2008. To give space to these buildings, they have destroyed a lot of urban heritage buildings too. For this last decade, there has been a lot of constructions.

To see this, I was very worried. Then, I worked on my series under title “ON” in 2010. “ON” is a combination of 2 words, OLD + NEW. OLD refers to old buildings, from the French colonial era up to modern Khmer architecture of 1950s-1970s during the Vann Molyvann period. NEW is about new generation. Destroying old heritage buildings is like killing a group of old people …

KH: 是的,我在馬德望出生。不妨讓我從家族遷徙史說起吧。我家族的幾代人在三個地方不斷遷徙,即暹粒、馬德望和金邊。我的祖先來自暹粒吳哥,現在仍有親人在那邊生活。大致因為吳哥衰落了,我的家族慢慢遷徙到馬德望。如果我和父母從馬德望去暹粒旅行的話,一路上途徑的所有村寨都能找到我們的親戚,一路到吳哥。我父親那系的族人一直向金邊移動,以獲得更好的教育。即使是我父親也曾在金邊讀書,直到紅色高棉以後他才回到馬德望工作。

20世紀80年代初,因為工作原因父親攜全家人移居金邊,當時我還是個孩子,而我的哥哥姐姐們已經上學了。1990年前後父親又回到了馬德望工作,後又輾轉去了暹粒,直到2008年退休。因為往馬德望轉學難,所以家人決定讓孩子們留在首都。我父母始終是馬德望種植稻米的農人,現在仍然務農。我從小就在不同地方到處跑,在金邊-馬德望-暹粒到處輾轉以便跟父母團聚,我們在金邊、馬德望城還有馬德望鄉下都有家。我父母不習慣在城市生活太久,因為他們已經適應了鄉下生活,而我自己,則是在城鄉二元間轉換。即使我在城市生活,我還是經常回到鄉下看望父母,同時回歸大自然。

我在首都的成長過程中,一路見證了這座城市的變化。在金邊成為城市之前,它只是洞裏薩河邊的一群矮房子。19世紀末法國殖民當局讓這裏實現現代化,現在的郵局一帶聚集了金邊最早的西洋建築,包括郵局大樓、印度支那銀行、酒店、警局等等。金邊這座首都,起初是個橫向發展、不斷擴大面積的城市,直到2006年縱向的摩天大樓開始出現。2006-2008那幾年,不斷有高樓大廈拔地而起,為了給這些建築騰地方,大量歷史古跡被拆毀,過去十年,不斷有建築在施工,這正是讓我擔心的事。

於是,從2010年起,我開始創作系列作品《ON》。「ON」是「舊」與「新」這兩個單詞的結合,「舊」指的是法國殖民時期一直到二十世紀50-70年代由Vann Molyvann打造的現代高棉建築時期,「新」指的是新時期的建築。摧毀歷史古跡無異於殺死一批老者。

Sophal Neak

It is good to tell stories that are never told

Conversation: Laura Shen×Sophal Neak

採訪Sophal Neak之際,正值Sophal舉辦個展的繁忙時期。在籌備展出和開幕式的繁忙工作之際,Sophal接受了我的專訪。Sophal Neak以獨具特色的人物肖像攝影為個人風格,喜歡用物質襯托人物,通過描述人與物的關係構成故事性。她與我分享了柬埔寨新一代年輕藝術家的藝術道路,以及在推廣柬埔寨藝術的過程中遇到的困難與驚喜。

profile photo of Sophal Neak, photo provided by the artist

Laura Shen (YS): Please share with us how did you grow up, your art route and how your personal experience has influenced your creativity and photography style? Why you choose to be a photographer?

申雁冰:請與我們分享一下你的成長經歷和藝術之路,這些經歷是否對你的風格造成影響?為什麼想做攝影師呢?

Sophal Neak: I study at Royal university of fine art as a graphic designer, I started to learn about traditional art such as painting, sculpture, drawing…at the same time at 2nd year I join photography workshop train by French culture institute. I fall in love with photography because I can talk and share stories with people I have shot. I think because I am always loved creative so it is influence my photography to be post sometime follow stories sometime follow concepts.

Sophal Neak:我以前在皇家藝術大學是學平面設計的,大學時候也接觸了油畫、雕塑、繪畫等傳統藝術。大二開始,我加入了由法國文化中心組織培訓的攝影工作坊。之所以喜歡攝影,是因為通過拍攝人物,我可以與人對話,分享他們的故事。我喜歡創意,有很多新奇想法,這對我的作品風格產生影響,將故事性和概念性兼備。

《无米之锅》No rice for pot, by Sophal Neak, 2012, credit to aritist

《懸掛》(Hang On),by Sophal Neak, 2013, credit to aritist

YS: You are born in the year 1989, the time during which Cambodia has changed from horror towards peace and reconciliation. As a young artist who hasn’t experienced Khmer Rouge or war, how do you feel the difference between your generation of artists and the elder generation, say those born in 1970s, grew up through Khmer Rouge and held the experience of refugee, like Leang Seckon, Svay Sareth and so on? How has your age offered you the source contents for your art, is there any advantage or disadvantage?

申雁冰:你出生於1989年,彼時柬埔寨已從恐怖統治逐漸向和解與和平過渡,你這一代人倖免於戰爭和紅色高棉,而上一代藝術家們,比如出生於二十世紀70年代的Leang Seckon,、Svay Sareth等等,他們是經歷過紅色高棉,甚至有過難民經歷的一代人。與上一代柬埔寨藝術家相比,你覺得你這輩人有什麼不同?你所處的時代,為你的創作提供了什麼樣的靈感來源,這個時代有什麼樣的優勢或不足呢?

SN: Khmer Rouge always the big subject that we never forget but we have to move on, in our society there are a lot of problems, which happen and we have to deal with. As I am a young artist I got a lot of challenge in my work I always question the identity or the problems those are hidden behind. I think it is good to tell stories that are never told in different ways.

Sophal Neak:紅色高棉是我們永生難忘的巨大創傷,但我們必須往前看。柬埔寨社會還有很多問題需要我們面對。作為年輕藝術家,在創作上我遇到了很多挑戰,我時常質疑身份問題,或者那些深藏不露、不為人知的事情。我希望用不同方式,將不為人所知的故事講出來。

《背向》(Behind), by Sophal Neak, 2013, credit to aritist

《花朵》 (Fower), by Sophal Neak, 2017, credit to aritist

YS: The impressive part of your art is that you try to catch the negative side of people, they hide their faces behind materials, or turn their back against the shot, they show the gesture of avoiding, standing behind, stay inferior, subordinate, and keep a humble existence. What motivate you to focus on this side of people, and why do you hold this perspective? Can I regard the figures in your photography as symbols signifying the status of a nation, a country?

申雁冰:你的攝影一個令人印象深刻地方是,你試圖捕捉人們消極的一面,他們把自己的臉藏在物品後面,或者背對鏡頭,呈現出一種躲避、被隱藏、被埋沒、卑微的姿態,處於一種低下的從屬地位。你為什麼更願意發掘人們這樣的一面,為什麼採取這樣一種視角呢?我可否將你鏡頭中的人物,解讀為一個民族、一個國家的化身?

SN: I never want my work to be symbolic or one them because I don’t want to stamp myself. The reason I choose different perspective in my works I because its reflexing from model’s stories. Most of recent works I show all their face because they don’t mind to show up. One thing that I stick with is portrait and play with object.

Sophal Neak:我並不試圖用我作品來象徵什麼,因為我不想自己被定義,限制在某種模式中。我採用不同的視角來拍攝,折射出模特的真實故事。我最近創作的大多數作品里,模特們都正對鏡頭,露出面部,他們並不害怕被凝視。在創作中我堅持的一種風格是,通過添加物品來拍攝人物肖像,讓人與物品同時出現在鏡頭中。

《叶子-14》(Leaf-14),by Neak Sophal, 2013, photo credit to artist

Orange pregnent,Chamnorng (2015),by Sophal Neak, 2015, credit to aritist

YS: In projects of Chamnorng, and Re-Memory, you use a lot of ropes, strings, what does this material symbolize? Could you explain your initial motive?

申雁冰:在作品《Chamnorng》 和《再次記憶》(Re-memory)中,你使用大量線繩,這有什麼象徵意義嗎?講講你創作的初衷是什麼。

SN: It was a bit funny for that two series, Chamnorng was created first in Cambodia and Australia then after Re-memory in Japan, the two series is mad in two different countries but I fond one object which is the same is Thread. In Cambodia we believe in the blesse thread from monk or nun is giving happiness or lucky so you can’t cut it off so I choose it to connect model to their memory. And in Japan I found the Red Thread I refer Senninbari and they believe that bell would give luck to the solider and bring them back home.

Sophal Neak:創作這兩個系列的過程很有意思,《Chamnorng》先後在柬埔寨和澳大利亞兩地完成,《再次記憶》則是在日本創作的。雖然是在不同國家創作,但兩個系列的共同點是那些纏繞的線,這源於柬埔寨的傳統,我們相信寺廟的和尚或尼姑所持有的那些用作祈禱的線繩,是神聖之物,會帶來幸福和好運,是萬萬不可剪斷的,我用這些線繩將模特與他們自己的記憶連接起來。在日本,我發現一種紅色線繩,當地人稱之為千人針(Senninbari),戰時的人們相信它是護身符,保佑士兵們平安從戰場歸來。

《叶子》(Leaf),by Neak Sophal, 2013, photo credit to artist

YS: It is very constructive that your work has penetrated and released the hidden spiritual side of Cambodian people, inviting audience like me to reflect, perhaps this is the most wonderful sense art has made to our society, to discover the problem, and request it. Whereas have you found your solution to change this? Are you holding hope and expectation towards a positive change in the future, such as those people in your photos could hang down the work tools and show their profiles one day, or turn their faces to the shot and let us see them?

申雁冰:你的藝術的重大意義在於,你走近並揭秘了柬埔寨人隱秘的精神世界,讓我這樣的觀眾進行反思。也許這就是藝術最偉大的一面,發現問題,質疑問題。但我想問,對這些問題,你找到解決的方式了嗎?對未來,你是否報以積極的期待,比如,讓那些舉著勞動工具的人把工具放下,露出臉來,或者讓那些背對鏡頭的人轉過身來,被人看到?

SN: I always say I don’t want to give solution in my work, I want to give question and make the audient think but honesty I wishes that could be change in the future. I hope my work can talk to people and make them realize in one day.

Sophal Neak:我並不想提供解決方法,我提出問題,讓觀者去思考。但老實說,我非常希望未來會有所改變,我希望我的作品可以與人們對話,讓他們意識到問題所在。

YS: 1. From your experience of promoting your art, how do you think about the position of Cambodian art in the world, it is still somewhat unknown to a global art stage, have you ever met any obstacles, or amazing turns?

申雁冰:你覺得在世界藝術界,柬埔寨藝術處於怎樣的位置?因為坦誠說來,柬埔寨藝術在全世界被認知的程度很低,在你推廣自己的作品時候,有沒有遇到什麼困難,或者驚喜?

SN: I am very bad with promoting my works and I think Cambodia is very small county some of collector they don’t know we are existed so it is hard to sell our art. I started my work without selling expected I just follow what we want to do. I have worked with one gallery in French they very good and professional.

Sophal Neak:其實我在推廣自己作品方面做得還不太好,柬埔寨是個小國家,很多收藏家根本不知道我們的存在,所以藝術作品的銷路很難打開。我在創作時,並不是抱著要把作品賣出去的期待,我只是做自己想做的事。我曾和一家法國畫廊合作,他們非常專業,很到位。

The End

系列文章《柬埔寨金边特辑》于2017年6月首次出版于台湾《 Art Plus》杂志。点击阅读特辑介绍

Abbey Laura San,创意写作人,通过对文学、哲学和美学的探索,寻找提高生活质量的方式,创办个人创意写作与设计网站www.abbeylaurasan.strikingly.com,以「城市惊奇」、「艺术庭院」、「工作颂歌」、「时装笔记」、「生活编辑室」和「人间灵感指南」六大模块拓展生活的无限可能,散文集《春色流年》正在发售中。发邮件到SHEN0125@e.ntu.edu.sg与她聊聊吧。

All Posts
×

Almost done…

We just sent you an email. Please click the link in the email to confirm your subscription!

OKSubscriptions powered by Strikingly